Throughout the article, three main points or necessities are discussed for the foundation of a humane society. The three necessary components found throughout not only Islam but through the whole of society are partial control, the principle of free movement, and the principle of
cultural heteroglossia. The principle of partial control similarly represents that no one power has complete dominance over the rest of the world so to speak. This is much like today's society as it consists of core states, semi-periphery states, and periphery states with institutional forms of governing.The second principle of free movement allows for people in co-existing in society can act as a lawyer then a house builder, or any other profession. Along with this came "border" which do not necessarily compatible with "umma." In other words that monarch's or rulers would have absolute control over free movement, which again in today's society has rules, yet not always followed in the overall scheme of things. The last principle is Heteroglossia which is constitutes as complex. It refers to believers of the same religion having one ideal and set of code, when in reality they have a multitude of believes all following the same religion. This definition is again applied in today's society, especially in the USA. The USA has a primarily protestant and catholic orientation. Although these religions follow many of the same believes, there is still variation throughout the same religion. The ultimate question posed in the article is do these three principles collaborate to form principles utilized in a humane society. My opinion on this matter is Yes, these principle are still in effect today. These three principles from examples of present day United States proves that the principles are necessary and important in forming a humane society, whether presented in these terms or not they are fundamental properties of human society.